On the basis of preliminary preparation, laboratory design is generally divided into two stages: preliminary design and construction drawing design. For large laboratory engineering design, scheme design should be carried out before preliminary design, while for small building engineering design, scheme design can replace preliminary design.
(1) Scheme design
According to the tasks and basic requirements of the laboratory construction, the architectural scheme design is carried out on the basis of the preparatory work. Generally, the design scheme is required to meet the functions of the laboratory, have a sense of the times in appearance, and conform to the urban construction planning. Generally, several or more than ten design schemes can be put forward for the selection of construction units and relevant departments. After expert argumentation, review and comparison, an implementation scheme can be put forward or the advantages of several schemes can be taken into account to further modify and obtain a more satisfactory design scheme.
(2) Preliminary design
On the basis of scheme design, the specific implementation scheme of further design is the main basis of construction drawing design. Its contents mainly include: design basis, design conception, general layout, scheme design of main construction projects, main material consumption, process design, main equipment selection, three wastes treatment, living organization and labor quota, relevant technical and economic indicators, earthquake resistance and civil air defense, construction sequence and time limit, general budget, etc.
(3) Construction drawing design
According to the approved preliminary design documents, it is the design work in the later stage to give the size and details of relevant special projects, guide the site construction and installation, arrange materials and equipment, and make a detailed budget accordingly. Its main contents should include: the design of general layout, architecture, structure, water supply and drainage, electrical, heating and ventilation and other related special equipment systems; accurate and detailed description of their location, clear distance, coordinates, elevation, structural form, node detail, material method, size, aspect, material model, equipment specification or selected standard drawings, component detail index number, construction and installation Technical requirements and inspection methods of special parts of the assembly.
The design of laboratory instrument placement is one of the key and difficult points in the design of a laboratory. The placement of experimental instruments seems simple, but there are many factors to consider. Whether the laboratory instruments can operate well and safely, whether they can be properly protected, whether the impact of the environment on them can be reduced to a low level, whether there is mutual influence, whether the laboratory personnel can use them conveniently, and so on, are the issues that need to be concerned when considering the placement of laboratory instruments. Reasonable arrangement of experimental instruments not only requires the designer to have a good understanding of the special requirements of the equipment itself, environment, water supply, gas supply, power supply, waste gas emission and other aspects, but also requires the designer to have rich knowledge of construction engineering design and construction management.